HomePhilippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgeryvol. 31 no. 2 (2016)

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) Protein D, Diphtheria or Tetanus Toxoid Conjugates) in Prevention of Acute Otitis Media in Children: A Cohort Study

Trixy G. Chu | Mary Agnes S. Regal | Agnes Cecille G. Llamas | Wilfredo R. Santos | Daniel Rafael R. Cachola | Norberto V. Martinez



Objective: To compare the incidence of acute otitis media among children aged 2 to 6 months old in Sampaloc, Manila who were previously given 3 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) protein D, diphtheria or tetanus toxoid conjugates) and those who did not receive the vaccine over a period of one year.


Design: Cohort Study

Setting: Primary Health Center in Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines

Participants: Medical records of well children aged 2 to 6 months were reviewed for inclusion. Participants were categorized into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Both groups underwent baseline history and physical examination including otoscopy and any signs and symptoms of active ear infection were noted. Subjects were followed up for a period of one year on a monthly basis for signs or symptoms of acute otitis media.

Results: A total of 176 subjects participated in the study. The overall incidence of AOM among participants was 5.11% (9 out of 176). An AOM incidence of 3.75% (3 out of 80) and 6.25% (6 out of 96) was found among the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively. Fisher’s exact test (one-tailed) p value =.34, relative risk (RR) .6 (95% CI 0.155, 2.323). Conclusion: The results of this study showed no difference in the development of AOM in the two groups. However, based on the relative risk, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is still benefcial in preventing AOM in children.