HomeAsia-Pacific Social Science Reviewvol. 16 no. 2 (2016)

Gay Identity Construction of Ten Muslim Male Undergraduates in Penang, Malaysia: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study

Mark Stephan Felix



Both nature and nurture have been used to define same-sex attraction (Acosta, 1975; Davies et al., 1993; Edwards, 1994; Engle, McFalls, Gallagher, & Curtis, 2006; Helmeniak, 2004; Jonas, 1944 McConaghy & Blaszczynski, 1980; Roughgarden, 2004; SavinWilliams, 1988). Whatever the cause as perceived by the individual, same-sex attraction is found in all cultures in all geographic regions (Lippa, 2007; Whitam, 1983). It is therefore safe to assume that whatever the cause, same sex attraction is a human condition that is present in members of all societies. Malaysia is by no means separated from this.