An inventory was conducted to determine the diversity and status of butterflies of Mt. Hamiguitan Wildlife Sanctuary, Davao Oriental, using quadrat method in five vegetation types, namely; agroecosystem (10-400 masl), dipterocarp (500-900 masl), montane (900-1400 masl), mossy (1400-1500 masl) and pygmy (1500-1675 masl). Two 20m x 20m plots were established per vegetation type. These inventory techniques revealed 142 species of butterflies plus one new subspecies described and illustrated. Diversity assessment using Shannon-Weiner index showed high level (4.1) in the Montane forest as compared to other vegetation types. Bray-Curtis similarity index showed low species similarity in pygmy, mossy and agro-montane forests (< 40 %). Furthermore, this study revealed 7 possible new species, 44 endemics: 2 eastern Mindanao endemic (very rare), 4 Mt. Hamiguitan endemic (very rare), 16 Mindanao endemic and 22 Philippine endemic. Seven species are new records in Mindanao. Mt. Hamiguitan Wildlife Sanctuary is the home of diverse and endemic butterfly species.