HomeLuz y Sabervol. 10 no. 1&2 (2016)

Development and validation of the Athletes’ Emotion Questionnaire

Rodel P. Canlas | Arnulfo V. Lopez



Contemporary theories and researches focusing on the dynamics of performances in competitive sports have gone beyond the single construct of anxiety. The recent expansion of the Individualized Zone of Optimal Zone of Functioning (IZOF) Model (Hanin, 2000 as cited in Robazza & Bortoli, 2005) has incorporated psycho biosocial states where emotion is a major constituent in the prediction of athletic performance. The main objective of this study is the assessment of this construct through the development of sport-specific instrument adopting the framework of IZOF for factor, subscale, and item compositions, which passed through three phases. Phase 1 is the development of the initial item pool, and face and content validation of the Athletes’ Emotion Questionnaire (AEQ). Specifically, interviews with collegiate athletes (n=100) and coaches (n=36), and a review of contemporary literature and existing related tests were conducted for the tentative items of the instrument. Five sports psychologists evaluated the initial item pool on item appropriateness. In Phase 2, a total of 328 participants completed the provisional form of the AEQ. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded valid items, two factors, and four subscales while Cronbach’s Alpha indicates that the instrument is internally consistent. In Phase 3, an additional 457 subjects took the revised AEQ. With this new sample, the AEQ is still internally consistent. Also, results of
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed adequate fits proving the validity and reliability of the proposed model of the AEQ. Further, factor correlations with existing measure supported the concurrent validity of the questionnaire. Hence, it is proposed that the AEQ is a theoretically grounded, valid, and reliable instrument for sports psychologists and researches in the Philippines