This study was set to evaluate upland erosion, eﬀectiveness of farmers’ practices and their perception about erosion and control practices, and identify factors aﬀecting land conservation decision-making processes. MUSLE model was used to predict soil erosion. Ten (10) agricultural felds in Simulao Watershed, Agusan del Sur, Philippines were selected and the average soil erosion of the study area was severe wherein the watershed was characterized as high erosion risk area. To understand farmers’ perception of soil erosion processes and land conservation technologies, their knowledge and perceptions about erosion problems and mitigation measures, personal interviews and group discussions were undertaken. Semi-structured questionnaires were used and 75 farmers were interviewed. Te major factors inﬂuencing farmers’ land conservation decision processes were labor extensive, decrease farm size which is difficult to plow, lack of knowledge and inadequate technical support.