Mindanao has been at the limelight of Philippine politics due to the twin issues about conflict and peace process during the last four decades. The threat of Islamic secessionism from the Philippine state underlies the national concern about security in the south. The insurgency attributed to the CPP/NPA is bad enough, but “threats by Islamic secession or separation jolts the national psyche much more,” according to writer O.D. Corpuz (1989). Hopes were raised when the 1996 Peace Agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was signed and implemented by the Philippine government. But such hopes were all dashed during its implementation as MNLF Nur Misuari reverted to his old demands of independence for the Bangsamoro.