The concepts of transformational and transactional leadership were introduced by Burns (1978), which Bass (1985) further developed. According to Bass (1985), transformational and transactional leadership are independent but complementary constructs. The latter focuses on the exchange of productivity for reward (i.e., productivity can be achieved by giving rewards and no productivity can mean the withdrawal of rewards or benefits). The former is concerned about achieving extraordinary outcomes and in the process allows employees to develop their own leadership capacities (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Avolio, Waldman, & Einstein, 1988). Consequently, transformational leadership occurs when leaders and followers raise one another to a higher level of motivation (Pawar & Eastman, 1997).