Harsh conditions brought about by the realities of the Pacific War set in on the people in and around Manila from December 1941 to mid-1945. As events unfolded, Filipino and American forces ended up on the losing side. The demoralizing situation was worse for the ill-prepared civilians who had to deal with the exigencies of wartime emergencies and shortage of basic commodities. The most imminent of these shortages was that of food and medicine. The pre-war preparations by the Philippine Red Cross (PRC), then an affiliate of the American National Red Cross (ANRC), and those of other various medical establishments in the Manila area were not enough for people to face the realities of late 1941 and early 1942.