Rice commodity is a primary component in global food security, as it is the main ingredient in the daily diets of around 3 billion people, especially in Asia. Like other agricultural production, rice cultivation depends on scarce natural resources. Tis Study outlines the utilization of land and water in rice production, and suggests an approach for optimizing use efficiency, namely through the combination of Integrated Rice - Fish Farming System (IRFFS) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The author argue that the utilization of land and fresh water is optimized through integrated and complementary production of rice and fish - two basic foods items in daily local diets. The study reviews currently available scientific literature on integrated rice-fish farming systems. IRFFS are characterized, and respective yield potential and interactions between rice and fish are discussed. Socio-economic surveys regarding the adoption of integrated rice-fish farming system will be summarized. The study also reviews literature on the impact of fish culture on rice field ecology as outlined in studies on weed infestation, insect populations, and greenhouse gas emissions. The study concludes that rice-fish culture can be an option to help rice producing countries keep pace with soaring domestic demand for food, especially fish. Integrated rice and fish farming system optimizes the benefits of land and water resources through complementary use and exploits the harmony between fish and plant.