This paper presents the diversity and status of plants conservation initiatives in the three mountain ecosystems in Mindanao, Philippines. Representative specimen were pressed, dried, poisoned and mounted as herbarium vouchers. To determine the index of general diversity for trees, 20x20 m sampling plots were established per vegetation type, and in each sampling plot, a 5x5 m sub-plot was laid to determine the species diversity for pteridophytes. Transect walk and sampling plots in 3 mountain ecosystems revealed several vegetation types with Mt. Malindang having 9 types, Mt. Hamiguitan with 5 types and Mt. Kitanglad with 3 types. Species richness was highest in Mt. Malindang (1,164 spp.), followed by Mt. Hamiguitan (878 spp.) and the lowest in Mt. Kitanglad (661 spp.) Regardless of the mountain ecosystem and plant groups, the montane vegetation had high species richness and diversity values than the dipterocarp and mossy forests. Mt. Kitanglad had the highest number of threatened species (92 spp.) while Mt. Malindang and Mt. Hamiguitan had 34 and 35 threatened species each, respectively. As to endemism, it showed that Mt. Hamiguitan had high endemism (34 %) than Mt. Kitanglad (21%) and Mt, Malindang (16%). Furthermore, the three mountain 51 ecosystems showed 64 species as new record in Mindanao and 21 species in the Philippines while two species of Nepenthes are new to science.