HomeLiceo Journal of Higher Education Researchvol. 6 no. 2 (2010)

Extent of Escherichia coli Contamination of Cagayan de Oro River and Factors Causing Contamination: A Translational Research in Southern Philippines

Lesley C. Lubos | Genaro V. Japos

Discipline: Bio-Diversity



The study determined the extent of fecal contamination of Cagayan de Oro River stretching along the nine (9) river barangays. Sampling sites covered the upstream, midstream, and downstream areas. The Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique (MTFT) was used to identify the presence of total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli in the water samples. The average coliform values obtained from all the sampling sites exceeded the acceptable values (1000 fecal coliform organisms/100ml) set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Temporal variability is a critical differentiating factor in the concentrations of total coliform across sampling areas. The spread of coliform was similar in the three sections of the river. The anthropogenic factors that contribute to E. coli and coliform contamination include the absence of toilets in 61.2% of the respondents; presence of 29.2% of toilets draining into the river; 34% of respondents having domestic animals with manure going to the river; and presence of the same contaminants in the tributaries of the river. There is evidence that the University-based translational research is effective in greater utilization of research findings: in increasing community awareness; enriching content for instruction; enhancing pedagogy of biodiversity education, generating local legislation on river conservation; and, promoting biodiversity research in higher education.