HomeHealth Sciences Journalvol. 8 no. 1 (2019)

A cross-sectional study on the HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of male youth having sex with men in Metro Manila

Beatriz Z. Arellano | Aliza Mariel B. Armamento | Donita N. Arnesto | John Paul S. Arquines | Joanna Mae S. Avanceña | Erica Charleen M. Baluan | Axl Rose B. Bangit | Reshan D. Baoas | Fatima Mae B. Barateta | Angela Carmina Q. Barroquillo | Calvin EJ R. Bautista | Shaila P. Bautista | Jose Ronilo G. Juangco



Introduction The Philippines continues to see an increasing trend in diagnosed cases of HIV. The predominant population of males having sex with men (MSM) is the 25-34 years age group, but trends show an increasing incidence in younger populations. This study aimed to determine the participants’ HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices and its relationships with the sociodemographic factors of youth MSM in Metro Manila. Methods The researchers used an analytic, cross-sectional design using a self-administered questionnaire. The survey tool consisted on 24 items on knowledge and 12 on attitudes. Respondents were classified into “inadequate” and “adequate” knowledge, and “poor” and “good” attitudes for the analysis. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 251 respondents. Results The mean age of the respondents was 22 ± 1.7 years. Most of the respondents had high HIV knowledge and good attitudes towards PLHIV but still engaged in risky sexual practices. Those who had undergone HIV testing were significantly more likely to have good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. With regards to attitudes, those not in a relationship were significantly more likely to have positive attitudes towards PLHIV and HIV/AIDS. Conclusion HIV testing status positively influences HIV/AIDS-related knowledge while being single positively influences attitudes towards PLHIV and HIV/AIDS. No significant findings were found between age, educational attainment and religious affiliation with knowledge and attitudes.


  1. Perez A, Zablan Z, Pacon C, Galay C, Viejo M. HIV/ AIDS situation in the Philippines, n.d.
  2. Libang G, Malayang G, Padilla C. Country analysis of AIDS in the Philippines: Gender and age situation and response. Available from: https://www.unicef.org.philippines/mediacentre_19971.html.
  3. Department of Health. HIV/AIDS and ART Registry in the Philippines. 2018 Sep.
  4. Mogato M. Philippines has highest HIV infection growthrate in Asia-Pacific: U.N. Thomson Reuters [Internet]. 2017 Aug 1. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-aids-philippines/philippines-has-highest-hiv-infection-growth-rate-in-asia-pacific-u-n-idUSKBN1AH3CW.
  5. Rehal S. HIV/AIDS prevention for adolescents:Perspectives from the Philippines and Kenya. Asia-Pacific E-Journal Health Soc Sci [Internet]. 2012 Jun;1(1). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282008830_HIVAIDS_Prevention_for_Adolescents_Perspectives_from_the_Philippines_and_Kenya.
  6. World Health Organization, and Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths in Philippines: A review of literature and projects 1995-2003. Manila, Philippines: World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region, 2005.
  7. Tanaka Y, Llave, Tuliao MTR, Yamashita T, Matsuo H. Knowledge, behavior and attitudes concerning STI prevention among out-of-school youth in the Philippines [Internet]. Univers J Public Health. 2017 May; 5(3): 127–34. Available from: https://doi.org/10.13189/ujph.2017.050307.
  8. A situation-response analysis of the education sector’s response to HIV, drugs and sexual health in the Philippines June 2012. UNESCO, n.d.
  9. Philippines implement sexuality education in schools [Inter net]. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. Available from: http://www.siecus.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Feature.showFeature&featureid=1909&pageid=483.
  10. Shokoohi M, Karamouzian M, Mirzazadeh A, et al. HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of young people in Iran: Findings of a national population-based survey in 2013 [Internet]. PLOS ONE 2016 Sep 14; 11(9): e0161849. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161849.
  11. Gangcuangco LMA, Tan ML, Berba RP. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among men having sex with men in Metro Manila, Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2013; 44(5): 810–7.
  12. Corpuz A, Sunga L, Pulmano R, Lazatin J. Cases of HIV/ AIDS in Tarlac Province, Central Luzon, Philippines from 1984 to 2016 and the knowledge and risky behaviors of various gender groups. Int Rev Hum Sci Res [Internet]. Available from: www.irhsr.org.papers/Feb2017-1.pdf
  13. Carmona, CE. Dental health care: What it means to PLHIV [Internet]. [Accessed 2018 Sep 23]. Available from: http://ritm.gov.ph/dentalhealthcare-what-it-means-to-plhiv.
  14. De Lind Van Wijngaarden JW, Ching AD, Settle E, Van Griensven F, Cruz RC, Newman PA. I am not promiscuous enough!’: Exploring the low uptake of HIV testing by gay men and other men who have sex with men in Metro Manila, Philippines [Internet]. PLOS One 2018; 13(7). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200256.
  15. Khumsaen N, Stephenson R. Beliefs and perception about HIV/AIDS, self-efficacy, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among young Thai men who have sex with men [Internet]. AIDS Educ Prev. 2017 [Accessed 2018 Sep 24]; 29(2):175-90
  16. Ramos-Jimenez P, Lee R. Male sexual risk behavior and HIV/AIDS: A survey in three Philippine cities. [Manila]: Behavioral Sciences Department De La Salle University; 2000.
  17. Ball A, Des Jarlais DC, et al. Multi-city study on drug injecting and risk of HIV infection. World Health Organization, Geneva; 1994
  18. Bagherzadeh R, Zahmatkesan N, Rashidi H, Gashmard R, Mirzaei K. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among inmates in Bushehr Prison [Internet]. Jundishapur Health Sci. 2015 Oct. doi: 10.17795/jjhs-30541
  19. Philippines, Republic Act No. 8504: Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act of 1998, Republic of the Philippines, 1998