HomeUIC Research Journalvol. 18 no. 1 (2012)

Phytochemical Screening, Isolation, and Structure Elucidation of the Radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) Bulb Ethanolic Extract Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Ma. Eva C. San Juan | Ramchand S. Jumala | Karen Hope G. Niasca

Discipline: Chemistry



Nowadays, plant is being used as a biofuel, a probable source for a pesticide and it is valued for its pharmacological effects. Hence, the researchers engaged in the scientific approach to provide explanation to these claims. The study focused on the phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of radish bulbs (Raphanus sativus). It further dealt on the isolation and determination of the molecular masses to provide probable structures and associated molecular properties for its constituents.


Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were analyzed. Further, this effort involved analysis through Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) using the mobile phase of Toluene: Chloroform (9:11) and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyze the first spot (Retention Factor= 0.667).


Phytochemical analysis showed no tannins. Using TLC, it revealed two spots having Rf values of 0.667 and 0.507, respectively. Using GC-MS method, 24 different molecules were isolated and analyzed of which only 23 were given probable structures. The 23 molecules constituted 11 long-chain alkanes, 4 long-chain alkyl esters, 2 aromatic ketones, a benzyl halide, an aryl ether, a quinone, an aromatic aldehyde, a long chain aromatic alkane, and a long-chain alkyl nitrile. With this finding, the bulb extract may be a good source of potential biofuel (mono-alkyl ester), UV A, B and C blockers in the form of diphenyl-ketone, oviposition attractants (long-chain alkanes) and also a source of bioactive molecules such as estragole which shows antispasmodic effect, methyl palmitate with immunosuppressive effect in semi-allografts and hepatoprotective activity in rats, and an analogue of the antidepressant alfetamine.