HomeUIC Research Journalvol. 18 no. 2 (2012)

Toxicological and Antimicrobial Evaluations of Formulated Ointment from Eskwater (Mikania cordata Asteraceae) Leaf Extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Judee N. Nogodula

Discipline: Chemistry



Eskwater (Mikania cordata) is a medicinal plant in treating wounds by B’laan tribe. It is a useful treatment in the emerging cases of difficult-to-treat infections caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. To validate such claims, this study was conducted to assess the toxicological and antimicrobial properties of eskwater leaf extract through the acute dermal toxicity, antibacterial activity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), potency test with the standard drug and mutagenicity assay. Toxicity level was attained using female albino rats with the dose of 1000 mg/kg (Sighting study) while 1000 and 2000 mg/kg for Main study. Kirby-Bauer Method was employed for antibacterial activity using Vancomycin and Terbinafine as positive controls. MIC was determined in two-fold serial dilution and Ames test was employed for mutagenic assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Hydrophilic base with low, medium and high doses were incorporated, respectively for ointment formulation. Results showed that eskwater extract was not toxic based from OECD 404 guideline and had partially active action against MRSA ATCC 43300 (13.66 ± 0.5778) and showed no inhibition in fungal growth. MIC was effective at 0.05 g/ml against MRSA only. It exhibited comparable potency with Vancomycin at the concentration of 0.32 mg and lastly, no noticeable mutagenic property was established. One-Way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison tests were employed in the efficacy of ointment. A significant difference resulted among the formulated ointment and positive control indicating that the three doses of formulated ointment and positive control have different potential to induce inhibition on the growth of MRSA. Ointment evaluated on its physical characteristics appeared greenish brown, has pH 6, good spreadability and washes out easily.