HomeScience and Technology Journalvol. 2 no. 1 (2012)

Development of a Multiplication Technique for Virus-Free Garlic Planting Materials

Miriam E. Pascua | Maura Luisa S. Gabriel | Araceli J. Badar | Menisa A. Antonio | Marissa I. Atis

Discipline: agricultural sciences



Garlic is vegetatively propagated by cloves; hence, it is exposed to virus infection and pests resulting to the accumulation of diseases in the planting materials through time. To address this problem, an in-vitro rapid multiplication technique for shoot induction and bulblet formation was developed at the Tissue Culture Laboratory. Specifically, this experimental study determined the effect of growth regulators on shoot induction on Ilocos white garlic variety; assessed the performance of Tan Bolters and Mindoro garlic using different culture media for in vitro bulblet formation; and evaluated the sucrose level that could enhance in-vitro bulbing using Murashige and Skoog (MS) as base medium. The protocol for a rapid multiplication technique was successfully developed both for in vitro and field conditions. The in vitro technique was done to induce shoots that form bulblets and to optimize bulblet formation. Garlic can be rapidly produced using the appropriate medium for shoot induction, which was MS + 0.3 mg/L IAA + 2 mg 2-ip + 3 % sucrose. For bulblet formation, the best bulbing medium for both Tan Bolters and Mindoro I cultivars was MS + 12% sucrose. Based on the results, the bulblets produced in vitro can be multiplied in the field.


  1. Barandiaran, X., Martin, N., Alba, C., Rodriguez-Conde, M.F., Pietro, A. D.I., and Martin, J. (1999). An efficient method for the in vitro management of multiple garlic accessions. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 35: 466-469.
  2. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. (2008). 14th edition 2007 Commodity Fact Sheets. Quezon City, Philippines.
  3. Haque, M.S., Wada, T., and Hattori, K. (2003). Effects of sucrose, mannitol and KH2PO4 in proliferation of root tip derived shoots and subsequent bulblet formation in garlic. Asian Journal of Plant Science 2:903-908.
  4. Haque, M.S., Wada, T. Hattori, K., and Plas, L.H.W. (2000). Garlic roots for micropropagation through in vitro bulblet formation, Acta Horticulture, 520: 45-52.
  5. _____________________. (1999) Anatomical changes during in vitro devit formation from root tips in garlic (Allium sativum, L.) Plant Production Science. 2: 146-153.
  6. _____________________ (1998) Efficient plant regeneration in garlic through somatic embryogenesis from root tip explants. Plant Production Science. 1: 216-222.
  7. Lapitan V.P.C., Patena, L.F. and Rosario,T.L. (1991). In vitro system of producing shallot (Allium cepa var group aggregatum) planting materials. Philipp. J. Crop Sci. 16(3):95-101.Li, Z.Y., Lou, H.l. and Gou, Y. (1999). Optimization of callus induction of garlic. Journal of South China Agricultural University. 20: 54-58.
  8. Nagakubo, T., Nagasawa, A. and Hattori, K. (1993). Micropropagation of garlic thru in- vitro bulblet formation. Plant Cell. Tissue and Organ Culture 32:175-183.
  9. Pateña, L.F., Dolores, L.M., Miranda, M.B., Vina, A.C. and Barba, R.C. (2000). Training Course on tissue culture, indexing and genetic fidelity testing on garlic. IPB Training Manual. IPB, College of Agriculture, UPLB, Laguna Phils.
  10. Resende, F.V., Gualberto, R. and Souza, R.J.De. (2000). Growth and production of garlic clones obtained from tissue culture and conventional propagation. Scientia Agricola, 57: 61-66.
  11. Walkey, D.G.A., Webb, M.J.W., Boland, C.J, and Miller, A. (1987). Production of virus- free garlic (Allium sativum, L.). and shallot (A. ascalonicum, L.) by meristem-tip culture. Journal of Horticultural Science, 62: 211-220.
  12. Xu, P., Sun, H., Sun, R. and Yang, Y. (1944). Strategy for the use of virus-free seed garlic in field production. Acta Horticulture 358: 308-311.
  13. Zu, Z., Um, Y.C., Kim, C.H., Lu, G., Guo, L., H.L., Bah, A.A., and Mao A. (2008). Effect of plant growth regulator, temperature and sucrose on shoot proliferation from the stem disc of Chinese Jiaotou (Allium chinense) in-vitro bulblet formation. Acta Physiological Plantarum. July 2008 30(4): 521-528).
  14. Yun, J.S. , Hwang, S.G., Sang, IG., Lu, CH. Yun, T., Jeong, I.M., and Pack, K.Y. (1998). Mass multiplication of shoots through shoot tip culture of garlic. Journal of Horticulture Science. 40: 14-19.
  15. Zel, J., Debeljak, N., Ucman, R., and Ravnikar, M. (1997). The effect of Jasmonic Acid, sucrose and darkness on garlic (Allium sativum L. cv PTUJSKI JESENSKI) bulb formation in–vitro. In-vitro Cell Div. Biol.-Plant 33:231-235, July-August 1997.