HomeIAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservationvol. 10 no. 1 (2014)

Fecal and Coliform Levels as Indicative Factors in Deterioration of the Water Quality of Lahug River, Cebu City, Philippines

Eukene O. Bensig | Fleurdeliz F. Maglangit | Mary Joyce L. Flores

Discipline: Ecology



The use of surface waters such as rivers for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes have made them vulnerable to pollution leading to impaired water quality. The water quality of Lahug River in Cebu City was evaluated using coliforms as indicators, in relation with physicochemical parameters such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, pH, phosphate, salinity, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS). Sampling was done once a month from November 2011 to April 2012 in three stations covering the upstream, midstream and downstream. The multiple tube fermentation technique was used for the analysis of coliforms. The level of these indicator bacteria increased from the upstream towards the lower reaches of the river especially in the months of February to April; however, the difference in values across time was not significant. This implies that there was a continuous fecal pollution in the river. There were no statistically significant correlations between FCs and TCs with the physicochemical parameters. A negative relationship was observed among FCs and TCs with pH, TSS, DO and nitrate (p>0.05). These results suggest the presence of sewage and organic pollutants in the river.