Mekong River Delta is one of the eight agricultural production regions of Vietnam and is also the largest rice producing region which contributes more than 50% of the country’s rice production. However, the projected changes in climate are considered to cause adverse impacts on the rice production of provinces within the delta. This study assessed the vulnerability of rice farming provinces in Mekong River Delta to provide information for decision-makers to design appropriate adaptation and mitigation plan for the delta. The result of the vulnerability index showed that Ca Mau and Tra Vinh are most vulnerable to climate change. The coastal provinces are more vulnerable than provinces located farther inland. The results for the simulation model of paddy yield under different scenarios showed decreases in the paddy yield in Mekong River Delta. Specifically, the yield of Spring paddy decreases 6%, Autumn paddy decreases 2%, Winter paddy decreases 4% and Autumn-winter paddy decreases 4% in 2050. From these results, the climate change adaptation and mitigation policies in this delta is suggested to be focused reducing the exposure to sea level rise; upgrading the irrigation system for paddy planting since the coastal provinces have high rate of rain-fed paddy, vulnerability can also be reduced by enhancing the adaptive capacity of provinces through subsidizing and providing farmers with new paddy varieties which are more tolerant to salinity.