HomePhilippine Journal of Veterinary Medicinevol. 43 no. 1 (2006)

Ultrasonographic Features of the Liver and Associated Structures in Philippine Native Goats (Capra hircus)

Jezie A. Acorda, Dvm, Magr, Phd | Maresiel C. Acebedo | Rhea L. Maligaya

Discipline: Veterinary Medicine



Ultrasonography is a valuable tool in evaluating disorders of the liver in animals. However, very limited studies have been conducted in the liver of goats. Bight Philippine native goats, four males and four females, aged one to three years old, were examined to determine the normal features of the liver, hepatic vessels, caudal vena cava and gall bladder under ultrasonography at the right flank from the 5th intercostal space to the area behind the last rib. After ultrasonography, the goats were slaughtered and gross and histological examinations of the liver were conducted. The liver, caudal vena cava, portal vein, and hepatic vein were most effectively examined in the 8th to 12th intercostal spaces, and the gall bladder in the ventral area of the 10th intercostal space. Normal echogenicity of the liver consisted of numerous weak echoes homogeneously distributed on the entire parenchyma. The portal vein and caudal vena cava appeared as structures with anechoic lumen and hyperechoic wall; the letter was seen only outside the hepatic parenchyma. The hepatic vein showed an anechoic: lumen with a hypoechoic wall. The gall bladder appeared as fluid-filled sac with anechoic lumen and hypoechoic margin with variable shapes, depending on its fullness. Measurements of the liver ultrasonographically conformed with gross measurements. Results of this study can be used as a reference when evaluating the liver and its associated hepatic structures in Philippine native goats for early non-invasive diagnosis of pathologic conditions.