HomePhilippine Journal of Veterinary Medicinevol. 46 no. 1 (2009)

Anatomy of the Superficial Lymph Nodes of the Philippine Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Important in Clinical Examination and Meat Inspection

Rio John T. Ducusin | Ceferino P. Maala

Discipline: Veterinary Medicine



The gross and microscopic anatomy of the mandibular, parotid, superficial cervical, subiliac, and superficial inguinal (scrotal and mammary) lymph nodes of the Philippine water buffalo of either sex were described. Three major difficulties encountered in palpation of these lymph nodes in live animals were the presence of obstructive adjacent tissues near the lymph nodes, thick skin and uncooperative behavior of the animals. The subiliac and superficial cervical lymph nodes had the most pronounced definition under the skin and also the most readily palpable. Except for the parotid lymph node, the lymph nodes in the carcass were generally covered by a thick pericapsular envelope consisting largely of adipose tissue. They were significantly larger (P<0.05) in males than in females, but this difference may be attributed to the generally larger body size of males. The location of the lymph nodes in the carcass was generally similar to what has been reported in cattle Microscopically, the cortex had primary and secondary lymphatic nodules,  the latter being more predominant in the mandibular and parotid lymph nodes, indicating active stimulation by antigens. There was apparently more diffuse lymphatic tissue than lymphatic nodules. The medulla had trabeculae which showed many profiles of blood vessels, appeared thick and highly branched. Of the six superficially located lymph nodes described, the subiliac and superficial cervical lymph nodes were the most readily palpable and, therefore, are highly recommended for palpalation during clinical examination and ante-mortem meat inspection in this animal