HomeThe Asia-Pacific Education Researchervol. 13 no. 1 (2004)

A Hong Kong Investigation of the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model of the Formation of Academic Self-Concept

David Watkins | Julia Wong

Discipline: Education



This research provided a test of the appropriateness of the Internal/External (I/E) frame of reference model for a sample of 119 Hong Kong secondary school students. These students' achievement scores in school examinations in Mathematics, English, and Chinese were used in Multiple Regression Equations to predict their self-concepts in each of these three subjects. As predicted by the model, achievement in these subjects was a strong positive predictor of academic self-concept in the corresponding subject but, if anything, negatively related to self-concept in other subjects. This comparison effect was particularly strong between Math achievement and self-concept in the language subjects.