HomePhilippine Journal of Psychologyvol. 45 no. 1 (2012)

Academic Motivation and Learning Styles of College Freshmen Exposed to Shadow Education

Roann M. Ramos | Ryan Francis O. Cayubit | Michelle Colleen R. Ang | Jerome Arthur M. Arconado | Beverly Mae C. Castillo | Ronelyn A. Paz | Neil Howser L. Poblete | Sharlynn M. Tamayo | Christine Nichole C. Villasenor

Discipline: Education, Social Studies



Shadow education is the supplemental education given by a private tutor to enhance knowledge, skills and learning. This study investigated the academic motivations and learning styles of college freshmen with and without exposure to shadow education (paid private tutoring) in three major subjects during high school. Based on the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, significant differences were noted in two aspects of academic motivation. However, no significant differences were found in their learning styles as assessed by Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory