Using the method of structural equation modeling, this study explored the impact of teachers’ perception of trust in colleagues on their receptivity to curriculum reform and the perceived outcomes of curriculum reform in the context of the national curriculum reform in China. A total of 1,366 teachers responded to a questionnaire that comprised three sets of instruments. The results showed that primary or female teachers generally had better evaluation on trust, receptivity and perceived outcomes of reform, and rural teachers were more willing to participate in the curriculum reform than urban and suburban teachers. Teachers’ perception of trust in colleagues had a significant positive influence on their receptivity to, and perception of, reform outcomes. Based on these findings, it is suggested that trust, in general, can be seen as a “buffer of risk” and “catalyst of change” during the change process. Enhancing the trust relationship among teachers was found to be an effective way to facilitate their receptivity to curriculum reform. The implications for the management of curriculum reform are discussed.