There are many things held in common between the Philippines and China today. For one thing, since the turn of the century, both countries have manifested the spirit of sustained nationalism: the Philippines began her independence struggles first against Spain (1896-1898) and later against the United States (1898-1946); the Chinese nationalists first struck against western imperialists in the abortive Boxer Uprising, and then in 1911 against their Manchu rulers who had granted the western powers extra-territorial
rights which violated the territorial integrity of China. China established a republic in 1912, while the Philippines got a completely Filipinized legislature and a formal promise of independence thru the Jones Law in 1916. This promise of independence was finally redeemed on July 4, 1946.