Pitted against this rustic element of the Philippine population, this backbone of Filipino opposition to Japanese rule, were the few, but powerful people who were actually by deeds if not by conviction cooperating with the Japanese. This cooperation was started, as we have seen, with the creation of the Council of State which was even at the beginning interpreted by the Japanese as a sign of fidelity to Japan. Such an attitude of the leaders was followed by the cooperation of the men of lower category, politically speaking. After the fall of Corregidor and Bataan, some of the military officers took· positions under the Japanese. Many of the elected provincial officials were induced to accept the same or equivalent positions to which they were elected. Many government and semi-government positions were created.