This paper traces the American efforts at the turn of the century to establish a public educational system, particularly in the areas covered by present-day Caraga region. through the first wave of teachers known as the Thomasites. The evolution of the first public high schools is likewise vividly presented. including the pioneering American tutors.
A contrast is also presented between the Spanish and American educational approaches where the latter failed to establish a viable educational system because of its cruel methods against that of the latter which was comparatively successful because (it) viewed Surigaonons as partners who need only to be supervised rather than subjugated. The American 'pensionado' program is also discussed at some length.