Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of both the leaves and roots of the Kalunay (Amaranthus spinosus L.) was carried out using various solvents of ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and reagents. The qualitative tests of both the leaves and roots manifested the presence of alkaloids, and saponins. Alkaloids indicated yellowish precipitates while saponins showed a formation of more than 1.2 cm of “honeycomb froth”. It was noted, however, that only fresh concentrated root extract manifested the presence of glycosides. All the other tests on fats and oils, flavanoids, triterpenes, sterols, leucoanthocyanins as well as resins showed negative results. In the concentrated root extract of Kalunay, a formation of brick-red precipitate in the hydrolyzed sample was noted; thus, it showed the presence of glycosides.
The plant materials (leaves and roots) were collected in the wasteland of Lusong West, Caoayan, Ilocos Sur.
Different qualitative test namely filter paper test (for fats and oils), Wagner’s Test (alkaloids), Fehling’s Test (glycosides), Bate-Smith & Metcalf Test (flavanoids and leucoanthocyanins), Froth Test (saponins), Liebermann-Burchard Test (sterols and triterpenes) and Phloroglucinol Test (resins) were used.
There was an interesting result of the presence of glycosides in the root extract of the kalunay plant while it was negative in the leaf extract .
It is therefore, recommended that other substances in both the leaves and roots of the plant be analyzed. The sensitivity of bacterial and fungal strains to the plant materials be tested; and the pharmacological assay of the plant should be done.