This study employed path and factor analytic procedures to explore the direct and indirect effects of classroom contexts – instructional procedures, student motivational beliefs, on achievement and retention measures (general achievement, conceptual achievement, problem-solving achievement, and procedural knowledge achievement. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The equivalent groups pre-posttest experimental design. Results showed that among the instructional procedures, the radical constructivist teaching approach significantly, directly, and positively predicts both general knowledge achievement and retention, but has no direct predictive value on conceptual knowledge achievement. Teaching approach influence on conceptual knowledge achievement is achieved through its effect on student control orientation belief. Moreover, the only significant predictor of problem solving achievement and retention is the radical constructivist teaching approach. On the other hand procedural knowledge achievement and retention is positively and directly predicted by both radical and social constructivist teaching approach and control orientation belief of students. The same teaching approaches also registered negative direct effects on control orientation. The social constructivist approach did not however register direct influence on retention of procedural knowledge.