A field experiment was conducted on the economic feasibility of relay wheat cropping in the lowland rice ecosystem at Pusa (Bihar) during 1993-94 and 1994-95. It used a split-plot design with three replications and six methods of wheat crop establishment in the main plot and three seed rates in the subplot. The soil was silty clay, pH 8.4 (1:2.5, soil:water), with initial nutrient status of 262 kg N ha-1, 34.5 kg P ha-1, and 110 kg K ha-1. A long-duration traditional aman rice variety, Sudha, was transplanted under normal practices in both the years and the wheat variety Sonali was grown according to treatments listed in the table. In relay cropping, wheat seeds were broadcast 10-12 d before harvest in standing rice to avoid delayed seeding. Three seed rates, i.e., 125, 150, and 175 kg ha-1 were with all subplot treatments. Wheat crops were also raised by normal practices, except for relay and zero tillage. In relay cropping, fertilizer was used after the first irrigation.