Many disease resistance genes in plants are found to have similar sequences that are presumably involved in pathogen recognition and signal transduction. This sequence conservation offers opportunities to develop markers that are indicative of function. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), primers can be designed to amplify sequences that correspond to conserved motifs of resistance genes. These PCR markers, called resistance gene analog (RGA) markers, have been used to characterize germplasm and breeding lines in barley, wheat, and rice (Chen et al 1998). This study tested this approach to evaluate the diversity of a set of varieties from Yunnan Province, China. RGA markers were applied to analyze 41 modern rice varieties and landraces cultivated in Luxi county in Yunnan and to test the minimal number of primer combinations needed to reveal the informative relationship among varieties.