In recent years, a bacterial disease of rice was observed in the field in Jiangxi and Yuhang, Zhejiang Province, China. The disease usually occurs at early flowering of late rice (japonica varieties). Initially, light, rusty, water-soaked lesions appear on the lemma or palea. The lesions then turn brown. The discoloration occurs most frequently on the palea. More immature and lighter grains are observed on panicles at harvest. The disease was reported in Japan, Korea, and the Philippines but not previously in China (Azegami et al 1983, Kim et al 1989, Xie 1996). Therefore, the author determined the causal organism and compared it with Pantoea agglomerans (formerly Erwinia herbicola) (Gavini et al 1989), the causal organism of palea browning in rice from Japan.