Rice is a diet staple, next to wheat, for Iranians, especially in the two northern provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran. In 2003, rice was cultivated on 615,000 ha. Total production was 3.3 million t and ha-1. Rice production and productivity have decreased over the past 2 y primarily because of the wide-scale adoption of improved high-yielding varieties. Before 2011, the area grown to traditional landraces (comprising mostly premium-quality Sadri rice) remained stable because farmers refused to adopt improved varieties on account of their poor cooking quality. Iranian consumers gave high preference to good cooking quality. Traditional landraces such as Hashemi, Musa Tarom, Binam, and Salari, which possess strong aroma and intermediate amylase and gelatinization temperature, and which become soft and flaky upon cooking, were cultivated on more that 60% of the total rice are. However, these tall landraces have low yields (3.0 t ha-1) and are susceptible to blast and lodging. Therefore, one of the major breeding objectives in the last two decades has been to combine the premium-quality features of these landraces with the high yield, dwarfness, and disease and inspect past resistance of improved varieties.