The poor tribal farmers of Kandhamal District, Orissa, India, practice the age-old method of agriculture. Their fertilizer consumption is only 4 kg ha-l. They cultivate local low-yielding rice varieties under a monocropping system in the upland, hill slopes where nutrient leaching is a major problem. To remove sole dependence on chemical fertilizers, integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) approach is introduced in the area. Experiments were conducted during 2000-01 kharif on seven selected farmer's fields (each farmer treated as a replicate).