The deepwater rice (DWR) environment is so variable and complex with regard to hydrology that it cannot be duplicated at the research center, where technology is generated. Consequently, the technology does not perform well in farmers' fields. In certain areas, on-station technology may be adopted by farmers, but it fails completely in other areas. There is therefore a need to classify the different agroecosystems for on-station and on-farm research. The DWR area in Bihar constitutes about 1.1 million ha, with productivity averaging 1.0 t ha-l. This area falls under one of the most complex, diverse, fragile, and risk-prone environments.