The flood-prone deepwater rice (DWR) areas of eastern India are spread over 3.9 million ha. Here, rice is grown as rainfed dryland or under shallow flooding for the first 1-3 mo and then flooded to depths exceeding 50 cm for a month or longer. About 12% of the rice-growing area of eastern India is under the DWR ecosystem. The main DWR areas are located in eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, and Orissa, where productivity is very poor (1 t ha-l). Deepwater areas, called chaurs or tals, are situated in remote areas and their environment is very complex and unpredictable, often times subjected to stresses of water stagnation. A farmer participatory evaluation was done at two sites- Biraul chaurs (north Bihar) and Suraha tal (eastern Uttar Pradesh)-to identify and develop ecologically sustainable and economically viable technologies that can improve the production potential of DWR farming systems.