HomeInternational Journal of Education Research for Higher Learningvol. 22 no. 2 (2016)

Ficus septica Burm.: Pre-Evaluation on its Secondary Metabolites and Mutagenic Activity Using Solvents of Different Polarities

Judee N. Nogodula | Kathleen G. Bersabal



Mutagenicity testing is one of the important tests to determine the potential of a drug candidate to induce carcinogenesis. Aside from efficacy, equally important parameter during drug testing is its safety. To meet the guidelines of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to the formulation, a pre-evaluation of the mutagenic property of Lagnub (Ficus septica) was investigated. The fresh and dried leaf extract of Lagnub was used in this study. Initially, a phytochemical screening was conducted followed by spectroscopic analysis using FTIR and UVVis. Mutagenicity testing was done using the Ames test (direct) using different solvents and concentrations while heavy metal analysis for lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. The Chi-Square test was used for statistical analysis. Results show carbohydrates, amino acids and flavonoids are present in the plant material. Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis identified the presence of alcohol, carboxylic acids, alkanes and alkynes while UV-Vis spectroscopy showed the presence of the carbonyl functional group. Mutagenicity testing show that at 100% concentration, the aqueous, ethanolic, and hydro-ethanolic solvents for the two extracts were mutagenic using acridin as the positive control while only 100% ethanolic extract was mutagenic using benzene as positive control. For concentrations 50% and below, all solvents were not found to be mutagenic for both extracts. For heavy metal analysis, the control of cadmium and lead were not detected. The mutagenic potential of F. septica depends on the concentration of the plant extract. Potential dosage forms must be carefully evaluated prior to formulation.