Garden-based education (GBE) is an innovative approach to enhancing learners’ academic performance. However, the mechanism of how it develops the cognitive domain of learning is unclear. This meta-synthesis of 22 published articles focusing on garden-based education integration in the educative process examined its impact on mental aspects of learning. Secondary data from each reviewed article were extracted and analyzed thematically. Five themes emerged describing the impact of GBE on the cognitive domain of learning, namely, 1) experiential learning, 2) meaningful learning, 3) explicit and implicit learning, 4) discovery learning, and 5) transmissible learning. GBE is a successful program in most of the basic education curriculum integration contributing to the improvement of academic performance. Albeit, there is no standard template for its implementation as it varies across context and educational system, adopting the general principle of school garden learning in the teaching and learning process is beneficial for sustainable learning outcomes.