HomeThe Paulinian Compassvol. 2 no. 1 (2010)

An Exploratory Concept Mapping of Women’s Understanding of “Kalaswaan” (Lewdness) Based on EDSA Billboards

Ma. Angelica Francesca Hernandez | Raisa Limpin | Rosario Ponferrada | Riza Flor Mosquera

Discipline: Advertising, Women’s Studies



The importance of visibility in the age of the Internet and the proliferation of sexually liberated images online was the stimulus for this study. This study was conducted with the aim of exploring women’s idea on “kalaswaan” or lewdness based on women images on EDSA Billboards. The objectives of this study include determining key words that the selected viewers associate with the concept of “kalaswaan” or lewdness found in (EDSA) billboards and key categories under which common keywords can be classified; identifying key images that selected viewers consider as “malaswa” or lewd; constructing broad and specific concept maps that relate keywords and images to more general categories that pertain to “kalaswaan” or lewdness; and lastly, locating specific keyword and key image map within more general word and image maps of the concept of “kalaswaan” construct.


The study used purposive convenient sampling method to gather participants and Concept Anchor Tapping (CAT) designed by the researchers (adopted from the concept of Thematic Apperception Test by Morgan and Henry Murray used in psychology where examinees are given pictures as stimulus and are asked to create a story; and similar to Rorschach Inkblot Test by Herman Rorschach also used in psychology, where examinees are asked to respond to an ambiguous and meaningless image stimulus) to derive from the participants their own points of view on a visual stimulus relative to the concept of “kalaswaan”. A concept map was constructed to understand the various conceptualizations of kalaswaan” from the female’s perspective.


The results showed concepts of “kalaswaan” or lewdness as stemming primarily from specific “kinetics”, “clothings”, “audience-fit”; “copy”, and “facial experssions”.