Studies on predictors of academic career advancement in public and private universities in the western context are extensive. However, relatively little is known about the predictors in the fast developing sector of higher education in Malaysia. This paper examines the influence of individual and organizational factors on the career advancement of academics in selected public and private Malaysian universities. Data were collected from 130 and 150 academics from the respective public and private universities, who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The dependent variable was career advancement while the independent variables were individual factors (family and personality) and organizational factors (mentoring, social network, and organizational support). Regression analysis shows that personality and organizational support are significant predictors of career advancement of academics in public universities; while personality, social network, and organizational support are the predictors of career advancement of academics in the private universities. Recommendations for human resource development of the academics and areas for future research are discussed.