Nehemiah was one of the people who refused to return to Jerusalem after the exile. He had become an influential man through his connection with the palace in Persia. He was in the palace when he got the news that the wall of Jerusalem had broken down and its gates were burnt with fire. Out of patriotism, Nehemiah responded to the situation and found solution to it. In Nigeria today, the issue of nation building has become a mirage. For a country to experience nation building or sustainable development, both the leaders and the citizenry must possess the virtue of patriotism, which has become a scarce commodity in the Nigeria value market. This paper, therefore, examines, through historical-critical and exegetical analysis, Nehemiah’s reform, which was carried out in Jerusalem and put the situation in context within the Nigeria socio-political, economic, and religious structures. This is with the aim of drawing out possible leadership and followership traits that are germane for nation building for both the leaders and citizens of Nigeria.