Dairying is an integral part of the smallholder farming system in some parts of the country. Smallholder farmers included in this study have been raising dairy animals for an average of 11.48 years. Dairying is mainly a supplemental source of income for the smallholder farmers. It contributes about 26 percent to their annual family income. The industry is also gaining attraction as a potential source of income as shown by a number of college degree holders and diverse kind of people who are engaged in dairy production in the country today.
The average age of the smallholder dairy farmer is 49 years and majority are not affiliated to any organization. Family type is mostly nuclear with an average household size of 5.65p The average farm size is about three hectares and majority of the farmers are non-landowners. Road condition from farm to market is generally fair with an average distance of 5.18 km. Feed resources are both on-farm and off-farm. Water supply is generally adequate with sources mostly from deep well and water pump. Market and technician services are always available to the farmers while credit availability and animals for dispersal are sometimes available.
Majority of the smallholder farmers show high level of awareness on the recommended dairy production practices (RDPP). They however, manifested average level of adoption of these practices. The farmers' level of awareness and level of education as well as credit availability have significant bearing on their level of adoption of the RDPP.