vol. 8, no. 1 (2011)
UM Research Journal
The UM Research Journal is an annual publication of the Research and Publication Center of the University of Mindanao. It provides a venue for the dissemination of research output of the faculty members from the different colleges and branches. Much gratitude is expressed to the referees from other institutions of higher learning who have extended their time and expertise in appraising the works that are included in this issue.